Both of these surgical procedures are performed in the middle ear to treat specific problems that can lead to hearing loss or in some cases chronic infection or tumor.

In a stapedectomy, which addresses conductive hearing loss caused by the middle-ear disease otosclerosis, the stapes bone of the middle ear is replaced by a prosthesis such as a prosthetic ear bone to help move sound through the ear.

A tympanoplasty involves repairing eardrum damage such as a hole or tear, typically caused by infection or trauma. A tympanoplasty can also be used to reconstruct the middle-ear bones.